Impact of Environment and Lifestyle on Gynaecological Cancer Risk


  • Nirmala K Research Scholar Department of Zoology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India.
  • Manjulatha C Professor, Department of Zoology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, India.



Gynaecological cancers, Pollutants, PAH, HPV.


The risk of gynaecological cancer (GC) is nonlinearly correlated with women's exposure to air pollutants (PM2.5, CO, O3, and SO2). Residents in municipalities with greater levels of PM2.5, a proxy measure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and NO2, had a higher risk of dying from ovarian cancer. The prevalence of pulp and paper manufacture was found to be highly linked with the incidence rates of ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer risk factors include physical inactivity, obesity, talc-containing body powder used in the vaginal region, silica dust exposure, dry cleaning, telegraph and telephone work, and graphic and printing work. Women who had previously smoked cigarettes were more likely to develop cervical cancer as well as invasive and borderline mucinous ovarian tumours. Cervical dysplasia was more common in women in the highest residential benzene and diesel particulate matter (DPM) exposure categories and with high levels of home exposure to PAHs. It was thought that exposure to PAHs influenced how cervical cancer developed and would strengthen the impact of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) on cervical dysplasia. HPV infection and cervical, vaginal, and vulvar cancer have been linked in numerous studies. These comprised 62.5% of all cancer cases in the current analysis, and 76% of cervical cancer cases were found among low-income populations. Consumption of soybean milk, dietary additives, sweeteners, and preserved foods, as exposure to plastics, cosmetics, and other pollutants like PM2.5, could all be risk factors for uterine leiomyoma. Endometrial cancer risk factors include obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Due to civilization, industry, and urbanization, humans are continually exposed to endocrine-disrupting substances (EDS), which promote the growth of endometrial cancer.




How to Cite

Nirmala K, & Manjulatha C. (2023). Impact of Environment and Lifestyle on Gynaecological Cancer Risk. International Journal of Recent Innovations in Medicine and Clinical Research (ISSN: 2582-1075), 5(1), 9–16.